Present subjunctive

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The present subjunctive tense is one of two tenses in the subjunctive mood. It is most often used in dependent clauses to describe some possible action or possible state that may not happen or did not happen. The present subjunctive tense has 5 distinct forms that agree with the subect in person and in number. The five forms consist of the verb stem plus one of 5 distinct suffixes.

Present Subjunctive suffixes
 Verb Class
NumberPersonSubject Pronouns-ar-er-ir
Secondtú (vos: see Note)-es (-és)-as (-ás)-as (-ás)
Thirdél, ella, ello, usted-e-a-a
PluralFirstnosotros, nosotras-emos-amos-amos
Secondvosotros, vosotras-éis-áis-áis
Thirdellos, ellas, ustedes-en-an-an

Note: Vos verb forms vary regionally. This chart shows the usual endings in Argentina.

Here are examples of regular present subjunctive verbs for each verb class.

Present Subjunctive example verbs
 Verb Class
NumberPersonSubject Pronounshabl-com-viv-stem
Secondtú (vos: see Note)hables (hablés)comas (comás)vivas (vivás)
Thirdél, ella, ello, ustedhablecomaviva
PluralFirstnosotros, nosotrashablemoscomamosvivamos
Secondvosotros, vosotrashabléiscomáisviváis
Thirdellos, ellas, ustedeshablencomanvivan

Irregular verbs

Many verbs have one or more irregular forms in the present subjunctive tense.

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